Humans, Dolphins, and Porpoises: Investigations at the Par-Tee Site, Seaside, Oregon, AD 100–800
Small cetaceans are understudied compared to whales and pinnipeds even though they represent a high-ranking prey choice when available in the environment. Building upon previous faunal analyses at the Par-Tee site, Seaside, Oregon that investigated whaling, this analysis of dolphin and porpoise remains suggests that people were hunting small cetaceans between AD 100–800 on the Oregon coast, especially harbor porpoise, which was found significantly more than any other cetacean species at the site. The quantity of small cetacean bone is unlikely to be the result of only acquiring stranded individuals. While there is no direct evidence of hunting, ethnographic literature and archaeologically recovered hunting technologies like harpoons provide insight into the means by which these species may have been hunted.
Ames, K. 2002. Going by Boat: The Forager-Collector Continuum at Sea. In Beyond Foraging and Collecting: Evolutionary Change in Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems, edited by B. Fitzhugh and J. Habu, pp. 17–50. Kluwer and Plenum Press, New York.
Arbolino, R. D., S. D. Ousley, E. Bubniak-Jones, and National Museum of Natural History (U.S.) Repatriation Office. 2005. Reassessment of the Cultural Affiliation of Human Remains and Funerary Objects from Seaside, Oregon at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Repatriation Office, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.
Colten, R. H. 2002. Prehistoric Marine Mammal Hunting in Context: Two Western North American Examples. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12:12–22. DOI:10.1002/oa.609.
Colten, R. H. 2015. Prehistoric Coastal Adaptations at Seaside, Oregon: Vertebrate Fauna from the Palmrose and Par-Tee Sites. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 10:253–276. DOI:10.1080/15564894.2014.1001921.
Cooke, R. G., T. A. Wake, M. F. Martinez-Polanco, M. Jimenez-Acost, F. Bustamente, I. Holst, A. Lara-Kraudy, J. G. Martin, and S. Redwood. 2016. Exploitation of Dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) at a 6000 yr old Pre-ceramic Site in the Pearl Island Archipelago, Panama. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 6:733–756. DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2015.12.001.
Cozzi, B., S. Mazzariol, M. Podesta, and A. Zotti. 2009. Diving Adaptations of the Cetacean Skeleton. The Open Zoology Journal 2:24–32.
Driver, J. 2011. Identification, Classification and Zooarchaeology. Ethnobiology Letters 2:19–39. DOI:10.14237/ebl.2.2011.32.
Drucker, P. 1951. The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 144. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Drucker, P. 1965. Cultures of the North Pacific Coast. Chandler, San Francisco, CA.
Frederick, G. 2012. Vertebrate Fauna from the Huu-ay-aht Archaeology Project: Results from the 2006 Huu7ii Village Excavations and Summary of 2004 and 2006 Data. Appendix A in Huu7ii: Household Archaeology at a Nuu-chah-nulth Village Site in Barkley Sound, edited by A. D. McMillan and D. E. St. Claire, pp. 115–153. Archaeology Press, Burnaby, Canada.
Frederick, G., and S. Crockford. 2005. Analysis of the Vertebrate Fauna from Ts’ishaa Village, DfSi-16, Benson Island, BC. Appendix D in Ts’ishaa: Archaeology and Ethnography of a Nuu-chah-nulth Origin Site in Barkley Sound, edited by A. D. McMillan and D. E. St. Claire, pp. 173–205. Archaeology Press, Burnaby, Canada.
Glassow, M. 2005. Prehistoric Dolphin Hunting on Santa Cruz Island, California. In The Exploitation and Cultural Importance of Marine Mammals, edited by G. Monks, pp. 107–120. Oxbow, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Hildebrandt, W. R., and T. L. Jones. 1992. Evolution of Marine Mammal Hunting: A View from the California and Oregon Coast. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 11:360–401.
Hildebrandt, W. R., and T. L. Jones. 2002. Depletion of Prehistoric Pinniped Populations along the California and Oregon Coasts: Were Humans the Cause? In Wilderness and Political Ecology: Aboriginal Influences on the Original State of Nature, edited by C. E. Kay and R. T. Simmons, pp. 72–110. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.
Huelsbeck, D. R. 1988. Whaling in the Precontact Economy of the Central Northwest Coast. Arctic Anthropology 25:1–15.
Itoh, Y., K. Takemura, T. Nakamura, S. Hasegawa, and H. Takada. 2011. Paleoenvironmental Analysis of the Mawaki Archaeological Site, Central Japan, in Relation to the Stratigraphic Position of Dolphin Bones. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 26:461–478. DOI:10.1002/gea.20362.
Losey, R. J., and D. Y. Yang. 2007. Opportunistic Whale Hunting on the Southern Northwest Coast: Ancient DNA, Artifact, and Ethnographic Evidence. American Antiquity 72:657–676. DOI:10.2307/25470439.
McMillan, A. 2015. Whales and Whalers in Nuu-Chah-Nulth Archaeology. BC Studies 187:229–261. DOI:10.14288/bcs.v0i187.186163.
Moss, M. L., and R. J. Losey. 2011. Native American Use of Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters in Estuaries of Northern Oregon and Southern Washington. In Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters, edited by T. J. Braje and T. C. Rick, pp. 167–195. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Mulville, J. 2002. The Role of Cetacea in Prehistoric and Historic Atlantic Scotland. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12:34–48. DOI:10.1002/oa.611.
Norman, S. A., C. E. Bowlby, M. S. Brancato, J. Calambokidis, D. Duffield, P. J. Gearin, T. A. Gornall, M. E. Gosho, B. Hanson, J. Hodder, S. J. Jeffries, B. Lagerquist, D. M. Lambourn, B. Mate, B. Norberg, R. W. Osborne, J. A. Rash, S. Riemer, and J. Scordino. 2004. Cetacean Strandings in Oregon and Washington between 1930 and 2002. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6:87–99.
O’Connell, J. F., K. Hawkes, and N. B. Jones. 1988. Hadza Hunting, Butchering, and Bone Transport and Their Archaeological Implications. Journal of Anthropological Research 44:113–161.
Osmek, S., J. Calambokidis, J. Laake, P. Gearin, R. DeLong, J. Scordino, S. Jeffries, and R. Brown. 1996. Assessment of the Status of Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Oregon and Washington Waters. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-76, Springfield, VA.
Phebus, G. E. Jr., and R. Drucker. 1979. Archaeological Investigations at Seaside, Oregon. Seaside Museum and Historical Society, Seaside, Oregon.
Porcasi, J. F., and H. Fujita. 2000. The Dolphin Hunters: A Specialized Prehistoric Maritime Adaptation in the Southern California Channel Islands and Baja California. American Antiquity 65:543–566. DOI:10.2307/2694535.
Ray, V. F. 1938. Lower Chinook Ethnographic Notes. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Sanchez, G. 2014. Cetacean Hunting at the Par-Tee Site (35CLT20)?: Ethnographic, Artifacts and Blood Residue Analysis Investigation. Senior Honors Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.
Sanchez, G., T. C. Rick, B. Culleton, D. Kennett, M. Buckley, J. Erlandson, and R. J. Losey. 2018. Radiocarbon Dating Legacy Collections: A Bayesian Analysis of High-precision AMS 14C dates from the Par-Tee Site, Oregon. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 21:833–848. DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.08.033.
Savelle, J. M., and T. M. Friesen. 1996. An Odontocete (Cetacea) Meat Utility Index. Journal of Archaeological Science 23:713–721. DOI:10.1006/jasc.1996.0067.
Wellman, H. P., T. C. Rick, A. T. Rodrigues, and D. Y. Yang. 2017. Evaluating Ancient Whale Exploitation on the Northern Oregon Coast Through Ancient DNA and Zooarchaeological Analysis. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 12:255–275. DOI:10.1080/15564894.2016.1172382.
Copyright (c) 2020 Hope Loiselle
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content and grant Ethnobiology Letters (the “Journal”) and the Society of Ethnobiology right of first publication. Authors and the Journal agree that Ethnobiology Letters will publish the article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits others to use, distribute, and reproduce the work non-commercially, provided the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal are properly cited.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
For any reuse or redistribution of a work, users must make clear the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0).
In publishing with Ethnobiology Letters corresponding authors certify that they are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements. They warrant, on behalf of themselves and their co-authors, that the content is original, has not been formally published, is not under consideration, and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights. They further warrant that the material contains no matter that is scandalous, obscene, libelous, or otherwise contrary to the law.
Corresponding authors will be given an opportunity to read and correct edited proofs, but if they fail to return such corrections by the date set by the editors, production and publication may proceed without the authors’ approval of the edited proofs.