The Dogs of CA-SRI-2: Osteometry of Canis familiaris from Santa Rosa Island, California
Domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris) are an important human companion around the world and have long been a focus of archaeological research. Osteometric analysis of six dogs from a Late Holocene Chumash village on Santa Rosa Island, California indicates that adults, juvenile/young adults, and a puppy were present. Similar to dogs on other Channel Islands, these dogs fall into the large Indian dog category, standing some 43-54 cm tall, with mesaticephalic or mild brachycephalic facial characteristics. No cutmarks were found on the bones, but one of the mandibles was burned. The CA-SRI-2 dogs appear to have eaten high trophic marine foods similar to what humans consumed, documenting the close bond between dogs and humans on the Channel Islands and broader North American Pacific Coast.
Allen, G. M. 1920. Dogs of the American Aborigines. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 63:431-517.
Bartelle, B. G., R. L. Vellanoweth, E. S. Netherton, N. W. Poister, W. E. Kendig, A. F. Ainis, R. J. Glenn, J. V. Marty, L. Thomas-Barnett, and S. J. Schwartz. 2010. Trauma and Pathology of a Buried Dog from San Nicolas Island, California, U.S.A. Journal of Archaeological Science 37:2721-2734.
Byrd, B. F., A. Cornellas, J. W. Eerkens, J. S. Rosenthal, T. R. Carpenter, A. Levanthal, and J. A. Leonard. 2013. The Role of Canids in Ritual and Domestic Contexts: New Ancient DNA Insights from Complex Hunter-Gatherer Sites in Prehistoric Central California. Journal of Archaeological Science 40:2176-2189.
Colton, H. S. 1970. The Aboriginal Southwestern Indian Dog. American Antiquity 35:153-159.
von den Driesch, A. 1976. A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites. Peabody Museum Bulletin 1. Peabody Museum, Cambridge.
Evans, H. E. 1993. Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog. Third Edition. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
Gilbert, B. M. 1990. Mammaliam Osteology. Missouri Archaeological Society, Columbia.
Haag, W. G. 1948. An Osteometric Analysis of Some Aboriginal Dogs. University of Kentucky. Reports in Anthropology 7.
Hale, A. and R. Salls. 2000. The Canine Ceremony: Dog and Fox Burials of San Clemente Island. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 36(4):80-112.
Harcourt, R. A. 1974. The Dog in Prehistoric and Early Historic Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science 1:151-175.
Harrington, J. P. 1942. Culture Element Distributions, XIX: Central California Coast. University of California Anthropological Records 7: 1-46.
Kennett, D. J. The Island Chumash: Behavioral Ecology of a Maritime Society. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Kroeber, A. L. 1941. Culture Element Distributions, XV: Salt, Dogs, Tobacco. University of California Anthropological Records 6: 1-20.
Langenwalter, P. E. II. 1986. Ritual Aninal Burials from the Encino Village Site. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 22(3):63-97.
Langenwalter, P.E. II. 2005. A Late Prehistoric Dog Burial Associated with Human Graves in Orange County California. Journal of Ethnobiology 25:25-37.
Lupo, K. D. and J. C. Janetski. 1994. Evidence of Domesticated Dogs and Some Related Canids in the Eastern Great Basin. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 16:199-220.
Morey, D. F. 2010. Dogs: Domestication and the Development of a Social Bond. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Noah, A. C. 2005. Household Economies: The Role of Animals in a Historic Period Chiefdom on the California Coast. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Orr, P. C. 1968. Prehistory of Santa Rosa Island. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara.
Rick, T. C. 2011. Weathering the Storm: Coastal Subsistence and Ecological Resilience on Late Holocene Santa Rosa Island, California. Quaternary International 239:135-146.
Rick, T. C., B. J. Culleton, C. B. Smith, J. R. Johnson, and D. J. Kennett. 2011. Stable Isotope Analysis of Dog, Fox, and Human Diets at a Late Holocene Chumash Village (CA-SRI-2) on Santa Rosa Island, California. Journal of Archaeological Science 38: 1385-1393.
Rick, T. C., P. L. Walker, L. M. Willis, A. C. Noah, J. M. Erlandson, R. L. Vellanoweth, T. J. Braje, and D. J. Kennett. 2008. Dogs, Humans, and Island Ecosystems: The Distribution, Antiquity, and Ecology of Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) on California’s Channel Islands, USA. The Holocene 18:1077-1087.
Schoenherr, A. A., R. C. Feldmeth, and M. J. Emerson. 1999. Natural History of the Islands of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Shigehara, N., S. Onodera, and M. Eto. 1997. Sex Determination by Discriminant Analysis and Evaluation of Non-Metric Traits in the Dog Skeleton. In Osteometry of Makah and Coast Salish Dogs, S. J. Crockford, editor. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, pp. 113-126.
Thalman, O., et al. 2013. Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs. Science 342:871-874.
Vellanoweth, R. L., B. G. Bartelle, A. F. Ainis, A. C. Cannon, and S. J. Schwartz. 2008. A Double Dog Burial from San Nicolas Island, California, USA: Osteology, Context, and Significance. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:3111-3123.
Wagner, H. R. 1929. Spanish Voyages to the Northwest Coast of America in the Sixteenth Century. California Historical Society Special Publication 4.
Walker, P. L., S. Craig, D. Guthrie, and R. Moore. 1978. An Ethnozoological Analysis of of Faunal Remains from Four Santa Barbara Channel Island Archaeological Sites. Report on File, Central Coast Information Center, University of California, Santa Barabra.
West, C. F. and K. N. Jarvis. 2014. Osteometric Variation in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) from Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, DOI: 10.1002/oa.2293.
Copyright (c) 2014 Ethnobiology Letters
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content and grant Ethnobiology Letters (the “Journal”) and the Society of Ethnobiology right of first publication. Authors and the Journal agree that Ethnobiology Letters will publish the article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits others to use, distribute, and reproduce the work non-commercially, provided the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal are properly cited.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
For any reuse or redistribution of a work, users must make clear the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0).
In publishing with Ethnobiology Letters corresponding authors certify that they are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements. They warrant, on behalf of themselves and their co-authors, that the content is original, has not been formally published, is not under consideration, and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights. They further warrant that the material contains no matter that is scandalous, obscene, libelous, or otherwise contrary to the law.
Corresponding authors will be given an opportunity to read and correct edited proofs, but if they fail to return such corrections by the date set by the editors, production and publication may proceed without the authors’ approval of the edited proofs.